MS: Metabolic syndrome. MMW: Minimum monthly wage. During the last years the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia high triglycerides and low levels of HDL , insulin resistance or diabetes, hypertension HTN , and abdominal obesity AO have increased in most of the developed or in-transition countries.
The presence of three or more of these disorders is currently known as metabolic syndrome MS , which implies a higher risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. The global prevalence of MS is noteworthy. Health care professionals are an important population because they are committed to promoting health, preventing illnesses, and treating diseases, all of which not only affects their own health status, but also affects the communities, families, and individuals with whom they work and by whom they are regarded as highly credible. The increase of MS and its constituent pathologies has important consequences for society; therefore it is necessary to have current information based on recently agreed-upon diagnostic criteria, obtained in a population that expresses the studied variables.
The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of MS in the healthcare population at the University of Antioquia UdeA , and to analyze its distribution for each component of MS according to anthropometrical, socio-demographic, and lifestyle variables. The following individuals were not included in the study: pregnant or breastfeeding women; people taking antibiotics or corticoids; people with an illness requiring hospitalization at the moment of collecting data; people with cancer or who had it in the last three years; people from whom it was not possible to take measurements of height, weight, or blood pressure; and those who refused a blood test.
Data was collected between October and July Figure 1 shows the data collection process. The following tests and measurements were obtained in the study:. Biochemical variables: The analyses were performed in a centralized laboratory using frozen blood serum samples collected in a fasting state. Standardized enzymatic methods were used to measure plasma glucose concentrations in fasting state, total serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Lifestyle variables: Smoking habits smoker, non-smoker, former smoker , and frequency of physical activity according to the participant's perception.
Anthropometrical variables: Anthropometrical measurements were taken after a hour fasting state, and were: weight in kg, and height and waist perimeter WP in cm. Body weight was measured with a digital scale Tanita HD with capacity of kg and a sensitivity of 0. Height was recorded with a SECA metallic measuring tape, with plastic casing, mobile measuring tongue, measuring range of cm, and a sensitivity of 0.
All of the participants signed an informed consent form, and received a document with information about the project, its implications, scopes, risks, and benefits. All the analyses were performed as a function of the presence or absence of MS and its components. A total of health care volunteers were included According to academic departments, the sample was distributed as follows: UIPE 5. Table II describes the studied sample according to the number of components of MS in function of the studied variables.
Analyzing sex, On the other hand, 9. Analyzing the level of education, the professionals more frequently had two or more components. There were twice as many professionals as students with three components, and three times as many professionals as students with four or more components. Analyzing by academic departments, participants from the UIPE had higher frequencies of three or more components In all of the academic departments, except for the SND, at least half of the participants had one or two of the components of MS table II.
Considering social strata and income, it is worth noting that participants with one or two components were mostly classified in a lower social class and in the group with an income below the minimum wage. The situation gets reversed with three or more components; the higher frequencies were observed in the higher social class and among those with the higher income table II.
Taking into account lifestyle variables, only 5. There were twice as many smokers as non-smokers in the category of three or more components Volunteers who valued their physical activity as "almost always" or "always" had highest frequencies of MS.
Analyzing nutritional status by BMI, The frequencies were distributed as follows: AO AO showed a positive gradient with age, social strata, and income. It is noticeable that there was a higher prevalence of HTN in men The prevalence of the high triglyceride component of the MS was associated with all the variables, except for social strata, area of education, and frequency of physical activity.
Even though there were no significant differences in terms of low HDL for any of the studied variables, which reflects the homogeneous quality of this condition, the analysis by social strata shows a slight tendency to a higher frequency of low HDL in the lower class Finally, table IV presents the characteristics of the studied sample according to the presence or absence of MS. The global prevalence of MS was There was a lower frequency of MS among women OR 0. Even though the analysis of the household's social strata, used as an approximation to an individual's social status, only showed an association with MS in the higher strata OR 3.
The prevalence of MS was double in smokers, and higher among those overweight than in the group with normal BMI After adjusting for age, there was still a significant association of MS with sex OR 0. In this study there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the prevalence of AO women However, in our study the proportion of men with MS was considerably higher than that of women with MS. The prevalence of MS in our study is also lower than the value of However, these data reveal an important public health problem that becomes evident with the constant rise of mortality and morbidity by cardiovascular disease, which is increasingly appearing at earlier ages.
Our findings are in line with other studies that discovered evidence of an association between socio-demographic variables and MS prevalence. As has been observed in population studies in different countries, this study found that age is a risk factor positively associated with an increase in the prevalence of MS and its components.
The fact that women had a significantly lower frequency of MS is also consistent with the reports from other studies. Additionally, the participants from the SND had the lowest prevalence of MS, and the highest percentage of people with none of the components of MS. Although this can be partially explained by the fact that this is an academic department with a predominant female population with the advantages aforementioned , this explanation is not satisfactory because there was another academic department with the same characteristics, the FN, that had a high prevalence of MS.
In that respect, we consider that better eating habits, incorporated through specific education, could represent a preventive factor for MS in this population, as it has been proven in studies that evaluate the effects of the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, our findings differ from those of other studies that reported an association between MS and social class or other related factors, such as education level or household income.
Additionally, the BMI was higher among the lower educational levels, while the highest prevalence of AO was found in the highest educational level. Besides, it should be kept in mind that a country's degree of development might influence the conformation of certain social structures that have been associated with differential effects on the nutritional status and on the classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
It is also important to remember that our study is based on university population, therefore a homogenous population in terms of educational level. Consequently, the social inequities that affect the general population, 32,33 which can lead, among other things, to less educational opportunities for women, could be underestimated compared to the other factors in study. In Colombia, according to the ENSIN, 30 there is a positive relationship between educational level and prevalence of AO among men, while for women the same variables have an inverse relationship. Besides, there are differences in consumption according to the type of relationship with the university, income, and the household's social strata, 34 and that is why it is important that those strategies against cardiovascular disease also consider the social problems as part of the strategy.
In regard to lifestyle variables, the frequency of MS was much higher among smokers, which was the expected result The main limitation of this study is inherent in the characteristics of a cross-sectional study, that is, the associations between MS and the studied variables can't be interpreted as causal associations.
- Flu and People with Diabetes.
- Walking in Corsica: Long-distance and short walks (Cicerone International Walking).
- Parasite; The True Story of the Zombie Apocalypse.
- American Legends: The Life of Stephen Douglas;
- La faluscja - Score?
- A Practical Art Therapy.
- 365 Most Prolific Motivating Quotes - From Todays and Yesterdays Leaders.
Also, because participation was voluntary, the results can't be inferred to the healthcare population from UdeA. In conclusion, there was a higher prevalence of MS among the older participants, men, smokers, those with higher income, and those overweight by BMI. Almost one fifth of the healthcare personnel from the University of Antioquia has at least two of the components of MS.
In view of this situation, implementing specific actions towards the improvement of the life style and to reaching or maintaining a healthy nutritional status could contribute to the prevention of this problem in the population. All the authors fulfill the criteria for authorship. Jordi Salas and Nancy Babio designed the original version of the project in the format of a multicentric study.
They also executed the laboratory tests to obtain the biochemical data. All of the authors approved the final version of the article. Thanks to the participants of the "Latinmets-Colombia" project for their involvement. We extend our special appreciation to the group of Nutrition and Dietetics students, who were the survey takers for the project.
We are also grateful to Professor Alejandro Estrada for his statistical advice. World Health Organization.
Material y Métodos
Informe sobre la salud en el mundo Reducir los riesgos y promover una vida sana. Serial on the Internet. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health: Obesity and overweight. Socioeconomic pathology as a cause of regional differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Read PDF Diabetes: It affects the whole family (Colección Salud)
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 60 2 : Circulation ; Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohort, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome. There are a couple of things to consider if you want to not only keep your resolution, but create a lifestyle change:. Think about the why instead of the what. Why do you want to lose weight or eat healthier or do more exercise?
Motivation is an important part of achieving a goal. If that motivation is finite— that is, tied to an event or situation— you may reach that goal, but afterward there is no reason to keep at it. But what if your motivation focused on a broader and more fulfilling end goal, such as good health in your golden years? If we start to see health, fitness, and exercise as important factors that support the aging process, we are able to pursue a lifestyle that ensures we are in the best health possible at every stage of life— not just for a party or a trip.
Your heart will thank you! Lifestyle changes are challenging, but not impossible.
Related Diabetes: It affects the whole family (Colección Salud)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved