Carringer notes that Citizen Kane was unusual in relation to his later films in that it was original material rather than adaptations of existing sources. For his part, Welles stated the process of collaborating with Mankiewicz on the Citizen Kane screenplay in a letter to The Times London , November 17, The initial ideas for this film and its basic structure were the result of direct collaboration between us; after this we separated and there were two screenplays: one written by Mr.
Mankiewicz, in Victorville, and the other, in Beverly Hills, by myself. Jewell concluded the following:. Besides producing, directing and playing the role of Kane, Welles deserved his co-authorship credit with Herman J. Mankiewicz on the screenplay. Film critic Pauline Kael argues otherwise in a 50, word essay on the subject, but her case against Welles is one-sided and unsupported by the facts.
William Randolph Hearst was born rich. He was the pampered son of an adoring mother. That is the decisive fact about him. Charles Foster Kane was born poor and was raised by a bank. Orson Welles never confirmed a principal source for the character of Charles Foster Kane.
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John Houseman, who edited and collaborated on the draft of the script written by Herman Mankiewicz, wrote that Kane is a synthesis of different personalities:. For the basic concept of Charles Foster Kane and for the main lines and significant events of his public life, Mankiewicz used as his model the figure of William Randolph Hearst. To this were added incidents and details invented or derived from other sources.
When Welles denied that the film was about the still-influential publisher, he did not convince many people. Hearst, to the contrary, never regarded himself as a failure, never recognized defeat, never stopped loving Marion [Davies] or his wife. He did not, at the end of his life, run away from the world to entomb himself in a vast, gloomy art-choked hermitage. Orson Welles may have been a great filmmaker, but he was neither a biographer nor a historian. He knows where all the bodies are buried. In the first draft, Raymond literally knew where the bodies were buried: Mankiewicz had dished up a nasty version of the scandal sometimes referred to as the Strange Death of Thomas Ince.
A financier closely associated with Thomas Edison, Samuel Insull — was a man of humble origins who became the most powerful figure in the utilities field. In , after a year absence, Gladys Wallis Insull returned to the stage in a charity revival of The School for Scandal that ran two weeks in Chicago. In an incident that became infamous, Mankiewicz returned to the press room drunk and wrote only the first sentence of a negative review before passing out on his typewriter. Mankiewicz resurrected the experience in writing the screenplay for Citizen Kane, incorporating it into the narrative of Jedediah Leland.
Like Kane, Harold McCormick was divorced by his aristocratic first wife, Edith Rockefeller, and lavishly promoted the opera career of his only modestly talented second wife, Ganna Walska. Maurice Bernstein. Bernstein is the last name of the only major character in Citizen Kane who receives a generally positive portrayal. Although Dr. Welles cited financier Basil Zaharoff as another inspiration for Kane. Carringer reviewed the December 3, , script of the radio obituary in which Welles played Zaharoff, and found other similarities. In Hollywood in , Orson Welles invited longtime friend and Mercury Theatre colleague Joseph Cotten to join a small group reading the script aloud for the first time.
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His name, by the way, is a combination of Jed Harris and your agent, Leland Hayward. These afternoon garden readings continued, and as the Mercury actors began arriving, the story started to breathe. Regarded as the dean of American drama critics, Ashton Stevens — began his journalism career in in San Francisco and started working for the Hearst newspapers three years later.
Screenwriter Herman Mankiewicz incorporated an incident from his own early career as a theatre critic for The New York Times into the narrative of Jed Leland.
Orson Welles bibliography - Wikipedia
He was outraged by the spectacle of a year-old millionairess playing a gleeful year-old, the whole production bought for her like a trinket by a man Herman knew to be an unscrupulous manipulator. The unconscious Mankiewicz was discovered by his boss, George S. Kaufman, who composed a terse announcement that the Times review would appear the following day. Mankiewicz resurrected the incident for Citizen Kane. It was a real man who built an opera house for the soprano of his choice, and much in the movie was borrowed from that story, but the man was not Hearst.
To Marion Davies she bears no resemblance at all. The wife was a puppet and a prisoner; the mistress was never less than a princess.
Orson Welles the Unfinished RKO projects
Hearst built more than one castle, and Marion was the hostess in all of them: they were pleasure domes indeed, and the Beautiful People of the day fought for invitations. Xanadu was a lonely fortress, and Susan was quite right to escape from it.
Theirs is truly a love story. Love is not the subject of Citizen Kane. He spent thousands of dollars on voice lessons for her and even arranged for Walska to take the lead in a production of Zaza at the Chicago Opera in McCormick of the Chicago Tribune. House of Representatives, but the two fell out in when Hearst ran for mayor of New York.
Hearst ballots were dumped into the East River, and new ballots were printed favoring his opponent. Hearst was defeated by some 3, votes and his newspapers bellowed against the election fraud. A historic cartoon of Murphy in convict stripes appeared November 10, , three days after the vote.
Or his mother. As an inside joke, Welles named Gettys after the father-in-law of Roger Hill, his headmaster at the Todd School and a lifelong friend. Vidal said that Davies had told this intimate detail to his close nephew, Charles Lederer, who had mentioned it to him years later. How Orson or Mankiewicz could have ever discovered this most private utterance is unexplained and why it took over 35 years for such a suggestive rationale to emerge, although the origins of everything to do with Citizen Kane had continually been placed under literary and cinematic microscopes for decades, is also unknown.
In any event, this bizarre explanation for the origin of one of the most famous words ever spoken on the screen has now made its way into serious studies of Welles and Citizen Kane. Castle claimed to have found both of their signatures on the same sign-in sheets at CBS Radio studios in New York, where they both worked on different shows in the late s.
A lot of people ought to study Stagecoach. A deep focus shot: everything, including the hat in the foreground and the boy young Kane in the distance, is in sharp focus. There is no confidence to equal it. The most innovative technical aspect of Citizen Kane is the extended use of deep focus. This was done by cinematographer Gregg Toland through his experimentation with lenses and lighting.
Toland described the achievement, made possible by the sensitivity of modern speed film, in an article for Theatre Arts magazine:. New developments in the science of motion picture photography are not abundant at this advanced stage of the game but periodically one is perfected to make this a greater art.
Through its use, it is possible to photograph action from a range of eighteen inches from the camera lens to over two hundred feet away, with extreme foreground and background figures and action both recorded in sharp relief. Hitherto, the camera had to be focused either for a close or a distant shot, all efforts to encompass both at the same time resulting in one or the other being out of focus. This handicap necessitated the breaking up of a scene into long and short angles, with much consequent loss of realism. With pan-focus, the camera, like the human eye, sees an entire panorama at once, with everything clear and lifelike.
In the background, Kane and another man break into the room, while simultaneously the medicine bottle and a glass with a spoon in it are in closeup in the foreground. The shot was an in-camera matte shot. The foreground was shot first, with the background dark. Then the background was lit, the foreground darkened, the film rewound, and the scene re-shot with the background action. Another unorthodox method used in the film was the way low-angle shots were used to display a point of view facing upwards, thus allowing ceilings to be shown in the background of several scenes.
The boom microphones were hidden above the cloth, or in a trench dug into the floor, as in the scene where Kane meets Leland after his election loss. Toland had approached Welles in to work on Citizen Kane. The use of multiple narrators was unheard of in Hollywood films. One of the narrative voices is the News on the March segment. Welles had earlier provided voiceovers for the March of Time radio show. Citizen Kane makes extensive use of stock footage to create the newsreel. One of the story-telling techniques used in Citizen Kane was the use of montage to collapse time and space, using an episodic sequence on the same set while the characters changed costume and make-up between cuts so that the scene following each cut would look as if it took place in the same location, but at a time long after the previous cut.
Welles also pioneered several visual effects in order to cheaply shoot things like crowd scenes and large interior spaces.
Related Orson Welles and the Unfinished RKO Projects: A Postmodern Perspective
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