The socioemotional part of the brain processes social and emotional stimuli and has been shown to be important in reward processing. The cognitive-control network assists in planning and self-regulation. Both of these sections of the brain change over the course of puberty. However, the socioemotional network changes quickly and abruptly, while the cognitive-control network changes more gradually. Because of this difference in change, the cognitive-control network, which usually regulates the socioemotional network, struggles to control the socioemotional network when psychosocial capacities are present.
When adolescents are exposed to social and emotional stimuli, their socioemotional network is activated as well as areas of the brain involved in reward processing. Because teens often gain a sense of reward from risk-taking behaviors, their repetition becomes ever more probable due to the reward experienced. In this, the process mirrors addiction. Teens can become addicted to risky behavior because they are in a high state of arousal and are rewarded for it not only by their own internal functions but also by their peers around them.
Adults are generally better able to control their risk-taking because their cognitive-control system has matured enough to the point where it can control the socioemotional network, even in the context of high arousal or when psychosocial capacities are present. Also, adults are less likely to find themselves in situations that push them to do risky things. For example, teens are more likely to be around peers who peer pressure them into doing things, while adults are not as exposed to this sort of social setting. A recent study suggests that adolescents have difficulties adequately adjusting beliefs in response to bad news such as reading that smoking poses a greater risk to health than they thought , but do not differ from adults in their ability to alter beliefs in response to good news.
Biases usually affect decision-making processes. Here is a list of commonly debated biases in judgment and decision-making :.
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In groups, people generate decisions through active and complex processes. One method consists of three steps: initial preferences are expressed by members; the members of the group then gather and share information concerning those preferences; finally, the members combine their views and make a single choice about how to face the problem.
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Although these steps are relatively ordinary, judgements are often distorted by cognitive and motivational biases, include "sins of commission", "sins of omission", and "sins of imprecision". Herbert A. Simon coined the phrase " bounded rationality " to express the idea that human decision-making is limited by available information, available time and the mind's information-processing ability. Further psychological research has identified individual differences between two cognitive styles: maximizers try to make an optimal decision , whereas satisficers simply try to find a solution that is "good enough".
Maximizers tend to take longer making decisions due to the need to maximize performance across all variables and make tradeoffs carefully; they also tend to more often regret their decisions perhaps because they are more able than satisficers to recognise that a decision turned out to be sub-optimal. The psychologist Daniel Kahneman , adopting terms originally proposed by the psychologists Keith Stanovich and Richard West, has theorized that a person's decision-making is the result of an interplay between two kinds of cognitive processes : an automatic intuitive system called "System 1" and an effortful rational system called "System 2".
System 1 is a bottom-up, fast, and implicit system of decision-making, while system 2 is a top-down, slow, and explicit system of decision-making. Styles and methods of decision-making were elaborated by Aron Katsenelinboigen , the founder of predispositioning theory. In his analysis on styles and methods, Katsenelinboigen referred to the game of chess, saying that "chess does disclose various methods of operation, notably the creation of predisposition-methods which may be applicable to other, more complex systems.
Katsenelinboigen states that apart from the methods reactive and selective and sub-methods randomization, predispositioning, programming , there are two major styles: positional and combinational.
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Both styles are utilized in the game of chess. According to Katsenelinboigen, the two styles reflect two basic approaches to uncertainty : deterministic combinational style and indeterministic positional style. Katsenelinboigen's definition of the two styles are the following. In defining the combinational style in chess, Katsenelinboigen wrote: "The combinational style features a clearly formulated limited objective, namely the capture of material the main constituent element of a chess position.
The objective is implemented via a well-defined, and in some cases, unique sequence of moves aimed at reaching the set goal. As a rule, this sequence leaves no options for the opponent. Finding a combinational objective allows the player to focus all his energies on efficient execution, that is, the player's analysis may be limited to the pieces directly partaking in the combination.
This approach is the crux of the combination and the combinational style of play. In playing the positional style, the player must evaluate relational and material parameters as independent variables.
The positional style gives the player the opportunity to develop a position until it becomes pregnant with a combination. The pyrrhic victory is the best example of one's inability to think positionally.
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According to Isabel Briggs Myers , a person's decision-making process depends to a significant degree on their cognitive style. The terminal points on these dimensions are: thinking and feeling ; extroversion and introversion ; judgment and perception ; and sensing and intuition. She claimed that a person's decision-making style correlates well with how they score on these four dimensions. For example, someone who scored near the thinking, extroversion, sensing, and judgment ends of the dimensions would tend to have a logical, analytical, objective, critical, and empirical decision-making style.
However, some psychologists say that the MBTI lacks reliability and validity and is poorly constructed. Other studies suggest that these national or cross-cultural differences in decision-making exist across entire societies. For example, Maris Martinsons has found that American, Japanese and Chinese business leaders each exhibit a distinctive national style of decision-making.
In the general decision-making style GDMS test developed by Suzanne Scott and Reginald Bruce, there are five decision-making styles: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous. In the examples below, the individual is working for a company and is offered a job from a different company.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cognitive process resulting in choosing a course of action. This article is about decision making as analyzed in psychology. For a broader discipline, see Decision theory. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Analysis paralysis. Main article: Information overload. Main article: Emotions in decision-making.
Main article: Maximization psychology.
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Aubrey Fisher" PDF. A first look at communication theory 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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